# Isotope dating rocks

Two alterations are generally made to equation 4 in order to obtain the form most useful for radiometric dating.In the first place, since the unknown term in radiometric dating is obviously ) rather than through the decay constant λ.Fortunately for geochronology the study of radioactivity has been the subject of extensive theoretical and laboratory investigation by physicists for almost a century.

By way of explanation it can be noted that since the cause of the process lies deep within the atomic nucleus, external forces such as extreme heat and pressure have no effect.

The same is true regarding gravitational, magnetic, and electric fields, as well as the chemical state in which the atom resides.

Half-life is defined as the time period that must elapse in order to halve the initial number of radioactive atoms.

The half-life and the decay constant are inversely proportional because rapidly decaying radioisotopes have a high decay constant but a short half-life.

Given below is the simple mathematical relationship that allows the time elapsed to be calculated from the measured parent/daughter ratio.

The age calculated is only as good as the existing knowledge of the decay rate and is valid only if this rate is constant over the time that elapsed.

In other words, it is the obligation of geochronologists to try to prove themselves wrong by including a series of cross-checks in their measurements before they publish a result.

Such checks include dating a series of ancient units with closely spaced but known relative ages and replicate analysis of different parts of the same rock body with samples collected at widely spaced localities.

For a single element, these atoms are called isotopes.

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